There are a variety of cardiovascular disorders, and there are many causes. Nutrition, which includes minerals and trace minerals, plays an important role in the maintenance of heart health.
Trace minerals can be a factor in cardiovascular disorders, and in particular for cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease.
Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the myocardium (heart muscle), in which the heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. Cardiomyopathies have a variety of causes and symptoms. As cardiomyopathy worsens, the heart muscle becomes weaker, which decreases its ability to pump blood throughout the body and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of heart disease, and it is the leading cause of death in the USA for both men and women. The diagram on the left shows a healthy heart (left) and one suffering from right ventricular hypertrophy (right).
Two minerals that have been shown to play pivotal roles in the maintenance of heart health are copper and zinc. The key to utilizing these minerals for the benefit of cardiovascular health is the maintenance of optimal levels of both of these minerals.
In the next few installments of the Albion Nutritional Facts newsletter, we will be reviewing copper’s role in heart health, zinc’s role in heart health, and many clinical findings on trace minerals and cardiovascular disorders.
We will also review just a few of the studies that have shown that Albion’s Copper Bisglycinate Chelate and Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate are highly bioavailable. When supplementing copper and zinc, the form of supplement must be of good bioavailability to assure optimal body levels are maintained.
Copper’s Role in Heart Health
There are two trace minerals that are often overlooked when it comes to their importance in cardiovascular health: copper and zinc. However, the role of copper in maintaining a healthy heart has been researched repeatedly in animal studies.
According to a study by Elsherif L, et al.,i dietary copper restriction leads to the enlargement of the heart and resulting congestive heart failure.
Copper repletion (getting enough copper) reverses this enlargement and prevents subsequent heart failure. This study looked at changes in myocardial (heart muscle) gene expression in those with copper deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy. The study also looked at the effect of its reversal through copper repletion. Normal cardiac function occurred through copper repletion.
Other studies have shown similar findings regarding the importance of copper and heart health:
Relling DP, et al.ii determined that copper deficiency impaired the function of the contractile cells of the heart muscle. Copper plays several key roles in the maintenance of the effective contractility of the heart muscle.
Hughes WM, et al.iii found improved cardiac function after treating certain pressure overload dilated cardiomyopathy with copper supplementation.
Saari JT, et al.iv found the elevated Nitric Oxide production seen in the copper deficient lead to inflammatory actions that contributed to impaired cardiac function. Chronic, low-grade inflammation has been seen to be a causative factor in metabolic syndrome, which involves hypertension, diabetes and heart complications.
Exp Biol Med; 2004;229(7):616-622
Cardiovasc Toxicol; 2008; 8(3):137-144
J Nutr Biochem; 2007; 18(7):443-448
Zinc’s Role in Heart Health
Zinc plays many metabolic roles. In the article by Song Y, et al.,i researchers review preliminary evidence based on their own studies, as well as others, concerning the possible mechanisms by which zinc supplementation could prevent diabetic heart disease.
Pilz S, et al.ii examined whether low zinc concentrations were associated with total cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. The study results indicated that zinc deficiency may contribute to reduced life expectancy with people suffering from heart problems scheduled for coronary angiography.
A review article by Tomat AL, et al.,iii states that human and experimental studies have reported an association between zinc deficiency and the cause and development of cardiovascular and renal disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, and diabetes.
A later study by Frustaci A, et al.iv examined 18 patients who had intestinal bypass surgery for severe obesity and cardiomyopathy. All of the patients were found to be low in antioxidant capacity, due to severe selenium and zinc deficiency of the heart muscle.
After normalizing the selenium and zinc, there was recovery of the ability of the heart muscle to contract. The decreased antioxidant reserve of the heart muscle is often observed in this type of cardiomyopathy, and is due to selenium and zinc deficiency. This is commonly seen with zinc deficiency on its own.
Br J Nutr; 209; 101(10):1534- 1540
Nutrition; 2011; 27(4):392-398
Eur J Heart Fail; 2012; 14(2):202-210
Clinical Finding on Trace Minerals and Cardiovascular Disorders
There is no question that zinc and copper are very important trace minerals, and they play critical roles in promoting cardiovascular health. As seen in the clinical trials, there are various mechanisms through which these trace minerals may help fight against or prevent heart health issues.
It seems that the major role that zinc plays in fighting against cardiomyopathy is related to its antioxidant impact. A clinical study by Wang J, et al.i zeroed in on this possibility. The study’s findings are particularly true for diabetic cardiomyopathy, which has been shown to have a poor metabolic handling of zinc.
Most recently, a study published in Cardiovascular Diabetology, by Xiao Miao, et al.,ii concluded that zinc supplementation provides significant protection against diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta of type 1 diabetic mice.
Copper, as mentioned earlier, can play important roles in heart health through its influence on the ability of the heart muscle to contract, as well as in the fighting against oxidative damage that can lead to low-grade inflammatory related problems, which are linked to metabolic syndrome.
A study by Zhou Y, et al.iii looked into the influence of copper and the performance of cardiomyocytes. The study indicated that copper could reduce enlargement of the heart muscle, a major factor in cardiomyopathies.
Additional research has pointed to the possible role for copper and zinc that involves superoxide enzymes’ antioxidant activity protecting the heart muscle.
Circulation 2006, Jan 21; 113(4):544-554
Cardiovascular Res; 2009 October 1; 84(1):54-63
Albion’s Copper Bisglycinate Chelate and Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate
There are a variety of disorders of the heart, and there are many causes. Minerals and trace minerals play an important role in the maintenance of heart health.
Copper and zinc are both important trace minerals; they have been shown to play pivotal roles in the maintenance of heart health. The maintenance of optimal levels of both of these minerals is the key. When supplementing copper and zinc, the form of supplement must be of good bioavailability to assure optimal body levels are maintained.
The studies listed below have shown that Albion’s Copper Bisglycinate Chelate and Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate are highly bioavailable. These are just a few of the studies on these two mineral forms that demonstrate their bioavailability.
Copper Supplementation Effects on Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activities in Middle Aged Men and Women
RA DiSilvestro, et al.
FASEB J: 21:698.8.
Copper Supplementation of Adult Men: Effects on Blood Copper Enzyme Activities and Indicators of Cardiovascular Disease Risk
AA Jones, et al.
Metabolism; 1997 Dec; Vol 46, No 12:pp1380-1383.
A Bioavailability Study Comparing Two Oral Formulations Containing Zinc (Zn Bis-Glycinate vs. Zn Gluconate) After a Single Administration to Twelve Healthy Female Volunteers
P Gandia, et al.
Int J Vitamin Nutr Res; 2007; 77(4): 243-248.
Zinc for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Trial Alone and Combined with Amphetamine
L E Arnold, et al.
J Child and Adoles Psychopharm; 2011; Vol 21 No : pp 1-20.
Albion continues to hold the highest standards in producing quality, scientifically verified, organic mineral chelates.
When looking for specific Albion chelated minerals, be sure to check your label, as it will display either the Albion Gold Medallion or mention the specific Albion chelate on the label.